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Assam's economy is rural and agricultural. Tea is cultivated in the hilly regions, and the state provides much of the tea grown in India. The valley of the Brahmaputra River is important for rice, the major food product of Assam. Other agricultural products are jute, sugarcane, cotton, oranges, and potatoes. The cultivation of silkworms is common in many areas. Lumber is valuable to the economy of Assam, and the extraction of crude oil is gaining in importance. The primary industries of Assam are textile manufacturing, f cement production, and oil refining.

In 2001, the total length of roads in Assam was 33,064 km which include 2,070 km of National Highway, 2,177 km of State Highway and 28,861 km of other PWD roads.

Assam is the railway center of the North East with the total railway tract length of 2,391.76 km comprising both metre gauge and broad gauge lines.

Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi airport (Guwahati), Salonibari (Tezpur), Mohanbari (Dibrugarh), Lilabari (Lakhimpur), Kumbhirgram (Si/char) and Rowriah (Jorhat) are the civil airports in the State.

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